Trebbiano Toscano: general information

general information managed by Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Alimentari e Agro-ambientali (DiSAAA-a) - Università di Pisa Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Forestali, Università della Tuscia, Viterbo
How to cite this source Scalabrelli G., D'Onofrio C., Muganu M., 2015. Trebbiano toscano. In: Italian Vitis Database. www.vitisdb.it ISSN 2282-006X
botanical information
name
Trebbiano Toscano
type of origin
spontanea
specie
Vitis vinifera
variety group
not available
genera
Vitis
subspecie
sativa
variety for
wine
code
IVD-var_2
registration
Registered in the National Catalogue
yes
code
244
Official name
TREBBIANO TOSCANO B.
synonyms
official synonyms (3)
synonyms reported in the National Catalogue
  • Procanico
  • Ugni blanc
  • Biancame
released clones (15)
images
  • shoot
    shoot
  • shootTipUs
    shootTipUs
  • shootTipLs
    shootTipLs
  • bud
    bud
  • leaf
    leaf
  • leafUs
    leafUs
  • leafLs
    leafLs
  • petiol sinus
    petiol sinus
  • bunch
    bunch
  • berry
    berry
  • seed
    seed
Historical references

‘Trebbiano’ is the term used to identify a family of grapevine varieties, perhaps the largest and most diversified. It seems that the origin of Trebbiano is ancient: Plinio il Vecchio in his Naturalis Historia named a vinum Trebulanum produced "in agro Trebulanis", near Capua. At the end of the sixteenth century Andrea Bacci, in his De Historia Natural Vinorum, asserted that Trebbiano was considered to be born in the homonymous village situated in the territory of Luni, in ancient north Etruria. Even De Crescenzi (1303) talked about Trebbiano, like many other agricultural experts including Gallo (1567), Soderini (1596), Trinci (1726), and other Italian and foreign nineteenth and twentieth century ampelographers (Reich and Vannuccini 1901).
The variety arrived in France in Avignon in the fourteenth century together with the Popes. In 1730 it was reported in Gironde by Abbot Bellet at Cadil. The name Ugni Blanc, as it is known in France, derives from eugenia (the noble origin), while the Italian one from medieval French draibjo (vigorous sprout). The hypothesis on the origin of its name is that it was called after the names of rivers and places like Trebbia, situated on the hills around Piacenza, or after villages called Trebbio or Trebbo in various parts of Italy (Giavedoni and Gily, 2006).

distribution & variation

Diffusion

The grape variety probably originated in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea. It is grown mainly in central and southern Italy, also including the islands. In North Italy the cultivation is limited to the warm and sunny vineyards areas. Plinio reported the production of a wine Trebulanum near Naples. Trebbiano produced in Tuscany, and in particular in Montecarlo, was famous in the Middle Ages. Whilst in the late eighteenth century, the ‘Trebbiano of Marcialla’ was considered as one of the highest quality white wines in Tuscany (Sismondi, 1801). In the ‘80 of the last century this grape variety spread mainly in Tuscany and Umbria, and to a lesser extent in Emilia Romagna, Veneto, Lazio and other regions in the south. Its importance has been drastically reduced since 1980, with the renovation of vineyards and the introduction of improved aromatic white grape varieties. In fact, in Tuscany the area of cultivation which was 13,480 ha and it decreased to the current 3,504 ha, while the total area surveyed in Italy is 38,356 ha, showing that the diffusion in Tuscany has been reduced to less than 9% of the national one. The grape variety, however, in this region still plays an important role in the production of ‘Vin Santo’.

 

Tuscany

DOC/DOCG

Other wines

Total

 

Italy

Area (ha)

1982

6.895

6.585

13.480

 

1970

56301

1990

 

 

14.587

 

1982

46182

2000

2.767,84

4.837,24

7.605,08

 

1990

 

2008

 

 

3.504,83

 

2000

44.536

 

 

 

 

 

2010

38.356

Agronomic characteristics

This variety is adapted to several soil types, even preferring those with medium fertility and environments with limited summer drought and little wind. The production is high and constant due to the high bunch weight and good fertility. It prefers long pruning, but also adapts to pruning systems with not too short spurs.
It has good tolerance to spring frost since it has a late budding and it has high thermal requirements for maturation although it can adapt to many conditions due to its rusticity. It has a good tolerance to moths. It is sensitive to powdery mildew, downy mildew mites, wind, golden flavescence and bunch  rot when the bunches are compact.

technological use

Trebbiano toscano gives a straw yellow color, neutral wine with balanced acidity and variable alcohol content. It was traditionally vinified with other white grapes such as ‘Malvasia’, ‘Verdicchio’ and ‘Vernaccia di San Gimignano’, but recently this trend is changing since it is preferred to vinified alone (since it ripens later) to be assembled with other wines produced by varieties which have more primary aromas.
The grape is used for the production of DOP and IGP wines from grapes harvested in Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria, Emilia Romagna, Lazio, Liguria, Marche, Puglia, Sardinia, Sicily, Tuscany and Umbria.
It was used to produce  he red wine ‘Chianti’ (10%) and ‘Chianti’ Classico (6%) and it is important for the production of  many DOP including ‘Bianco Colline Lucchesi’, ‘Bianco della Valdinievole’, ‘Bianco dell'Empolese’, ‘Bianco Pisano di San Torpè’, ‘Elba Bianco’, ‘Val d'Arbia’, ‘Bianco di Pitigliano’, ‘Montecucco’, ‘Bianco di Pitigliano’, ‘Montescudaio’, ‘Sant' Antimo’. The utilisation in other regions concerns the DOP ‘Bagnoli’, ‘Bianco di Custoza’, ‘Breganze’, ‘Colli Euganei’, ‘Gambellara’, ‘Garda orientale’, ‘Lugana’, ‘Soave’, ‘Recioto di Soave’, ‘Valdadige’.
It also plays a role in the production of many Tuscan IGP wines and it is important for ‘Vinsanto’, traditionally produced in Tuscany (‘Chianti’, ‘Chianti Classico’, ‘Carmignano’, ‘Montepulciano’, ‘Elba’, ‘Capalbio’, ‘Montescudaio’, and other denominations), due to the specific enzyme patrimony that allow the wine to evolve in an oxidizing atmosphere, developing tertiary aromas with ageing.
The grape is also used for the production of Italian brandy and in France for the production of famous Cognac.

bibliographies (9)
authors year title journal citation
Bacci A 1595 De naturalis vinorum historia de vinis italie et de conviviis libri VII. Roma
Breviglieri N., Casini E. 1965 Trebbiano toscano Ministero dell'Agricoltura e delle Foreste - Principali vitigni da vino coltivati in Italia - Volume IV
De Crescenzi P. 1805 Trattato dell’Agricoltura.Tradotto nella favella fiorentina dallo ‘Nferigno. Vol I, Milano
Gallo A. 1591 Le vinti giornate dell'agricoltura et de' piaceri della villa. Borgomineri C. Venezia
Giavedoni F., Gily M., 2006 Guida ai vitigni d'Italia Ed. Slow Food
Reich, Vannuccini 1901 Trebbiano Toscano In Viala, Velmorel. Traité general de Viticolture. Ampélographie. Vol. 5, Ed. Masson, Paris. 1901-1910.
Sismondi J.C.L. 1801 Tableu de l'agricolture toscane. Lib. Paschoud, Genève.
Soderini G. V. 1590 Trattato della coltivazione delle viti e del frutto che se ne può cavare Edizione del 1622, Giunti Ed. Firenze.
Trinci C. 1726 L'Agricoltore sperimentato, ovvero regole generali sopra l'agricoltura, coltivazione delle viti, degli alberi, ecc. Marescandoli, Lucca, 1726 - Venezia, 1778.
updated at 2015-08-02 11:08:44 (3 years ago)