Canaiolo nero: general information

general information managed by Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Alimentari e Agro-ambientali (DiSAAA-a) - Università di Pisa Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Forestali, Università della Tuscia, Viterbo
How to cite this source Scalabrelli G., D'Onofrio C., Muganu M., 2015. Canaiolo. In: Italian Vitis Database. www.vitisdb.it ISSN 2282-006X
botanical information
name
Canaiolo nero
type of origin
spontanea
specie
Vitis vinifera
variety group
not available
genera
Vitis
subspecie
sativa
variety for
wine
code
IVD-var_9
registration
Registered in the National Catalogue
yes
code
49
Official name
CANAIOLO NERO N.
synonyms
documented synonyms (5)
synonyms documented by the Istitution that appear with the eventual support of the literature
released clones (11)
images
  • shoot
    shoot
  • shootTipUs
    shootTipUs
  • shootTipLs
    shootTipLs
  • bud
    bud
  • leaf
    leaf
  • leafUs
    leafUs
  • leafLs
    leafLs
  • petiol sinus
    petiol sinus
  • bunch
    bunch
  • berry
    berry
  • seed
    seed
Historical references

Variety of Tuscan origin, reported by Pier de Crescenzi (1805) as a "beautiful grape to be stored "; three hundred years later Soderini (1590) described the variety Canaiolo nero (black) and the grape coloured ‘Canaiola’, later called "Canaiolo" (Villifranchi, 1773). The Acerbi (1825) reports the "Canaiolo nero minuto". Morphological descriptions related to the different names (“Canaiolo rosso piccolo”, “Canaiolo cascolo” , “Canaiolo nero a raspo rosso”), however Tozzetti (1858) refers to “Canajolo”: “Canajolo Lastri: v. Vitis viniferae varietas”; “Canajolo nero grosso” Mich. Vitis parvo botro, acinis subrotundis, nigris, dulcibus Mich. Rar; “Canajolo nero piccolo” Mich. Vitis parvo botro, acinis subrotundis exiguis, nigris, dulcibus Mich. Fr. dulcibus.
In the province of Massa Carrara was identified a biotype, the "Merla", which is under technological improvement, with promising results (Scalabrelli et al., 2007; Torello-Marinoni et al., 2009).

distribution & variation

Diffusion

The  surface cultivated  in Italy with “Canaiolo nero” decreased within forty years from 6,300 to about 1,322 ha (2010), which basically coincides with the trend recorded in Tuscany, the region of greatest diffusion. “Canaiolo nero” is also cultivated in neighbouring regions: Marche, Umbria, Lazio and Liguria. In Tuscany this variety was particularly widespread in in province of Florence and in Chianti Classico area, where was present in percentages varying between 10 and 30%. But it was present also in several other Tuscany provinces as deemed of considerable importance to the quality of the wine. Utilization in the Chianti formula has allowed the gain of its cultivation in several areas of wine production of Tuscany, although since the years '70 of last century showed  unsatisfactory qualitative performances, especially due to  the unsuitable environment of cultivation, vigorous rootstock, irrational training systems and biotopes with high yield production and tight clusters. High productions resulted in a decrease of ageing wine  suitability which induced a drastic reduction of cultivation in the area of production of ageing  Tuscany red wines (Chianti, Chianti Classico and Super Tuscans) as it was considered responsible of bitter taste and the colour decay.

 

Italy

Area (ha)

 

 

1970

6.300

 

 

1982

7.070

 

 

1990

5.636

 

 

2000

2.762

 

 

2010

1.322

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tuscany

DOC/DOCG

other wines

total

1982

2.096

4.509

6.605

1990

 

 

4.077

2000

1.705

825

2.529

2008

 

 

1.303

 

 

Agronomical performances

The bud break of “Canaiolo nero” is between "Sangiovese" and "Trebbiano toscano",  ripening is almost simultaneous to “Sangiovese”, clusters tend to be compact with a variability of berry colour intensity depending by growing conditions. The better quality is obtained in soils not too rich and with a good exposition. It is particularly sensitive to downy mildew and bunch rot.

technological use

This grape variety is used for the production of PDO and PGI wines from grapes harvested in Abruzzo, Lazio, Liguria, Marche, Sardinia, Tuscany and Umbria.
Canaiolo nero (max 20%) was used with Sangiovese, Malvasia and Trebbiano grapes for Chianti classico, a mixtures that in recent years has been deeply modified. In the past it was used for the "Governo alla Toscana", performed by adding to the new wine fresh grape must, obtained from grapes dried on suitable locations. The grapes gives  fruity and floral aroma in wines but currently most of winemakers don’t like it, however there are few cases of exploitation of its characteristics (softness, balance and aroma).
However “Canaiolo nero” is still used in several  red wines like “Vino Nobile di Montepulciano”, “Torgiano”, “Carmignano”, “Colli dell'etruria centrale”, “Monaco”, “Montecarlo Rosso di Montepulciano”, “San Gimignano” and many other Tuscan denomination wines and some of Umbria and Lazio.

bibliographies (11)
authors year title journal citation
Acerbi G. 1825 Delle viti italiane, ossia materiali per servire alla classificazione, monografica e sinonimia, preceduti dal tentativo di una classificazione delle viti. Vol. I -Ed. G. Silvestri - Milano
Breviglieri N., Casini E. 1965 Canaiolo nero Ministero dell’Agricoltura e delle Foreste - Principali vitigni da vino coltivati in Italia - Volume IV
Cipriani G., Spadotto A., Jurman I., Di Gaspero G., Crespan M., Meneghetti S., Frare E., Vignani R., Cresti M., Morgante M., Pezzotti M., Pe E., Policriti A., Testolin R. 2010 The SSR-based molecular profile of 1005 grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) accessions uncovers new synonymy and parentages, and reveals a large admixture amongst varieties of different geographic origin TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics 121:1569-1585
De crescenzi P. 1805 Ruralium commodorum Milano
Di Rovasenda G. 1877 Saggio di una ampelografia universale. Loescher, Torino.
Goethe H. 1887 Handbuch der Ampelographie Graz, 1878 - 1887 - Berlino
Scalabrelli, G., D’Onofrio C., De Lorenzis, Vignani R. 2007 Identificazione e caratterizzazione di vitigni minori toscani mediante tecniche ampelografiche e molecolari Ital. Hortus, vol 14 (3): 54-58.
Soderini G. V. 1590 Trattato della coltivazione delle viti e del frutto che se ne può cavare Edizione del 1622, Giunti Ed. Firenze.
Torello Marinoni D. , Raimondi S. , Ruffa P. , Lacombe T. , Schneider A. 2009 Identification of grape cultivars from Liguria (north-western Italy) Vitis Vitis 48 (4), 175–183 (2009)
Tozzetti Targioni O. 1858 Dizionario botanico italiano, Firenze Editore presso Guglielmo Piatti
Villifranchi G. C. 1773 Enologia toscana o sui memoria sopra i vini ed in specie toscani Cambiagi Ed., Firenze.
updated at 2016-11-01 12:18:27 (2 years ago)